Forensic Entomology is that special associated distinctive discipline of Forensic Science that deals with the assorted aspects of an insect’s or a maggot’s life cycle so as to assess the time since death. Besides the actual fact that it's one among the distinctive applications of the Sciences technicalities, it’s another side is that it's a way-back best-known Science to the human civilization.
The history of Forensic Entomology rests all the approach back to the thirteenth century. The earliest best-known and recorded case of Forensic Entomology comes from the medieval China. Within the year 1325, a Chinese attorney named Sung T’su wrote a text book on criminal investigations, referred to as “The Washing Away of Wrongs”. During this book, T’su recounts a murder that went on close to the rice field. The victim has been repeatedly slashed by a sharp edged weapon and investigators suspected it to be a reap hook or a sickle, a typical tool usually employed in rice harvest. The native official then asked all the farmers to come up with their sickles. Though all the sickles looked clean, nonetheless one among the sickles attracted hordes of flies. The flies have the power to sense the residue of blood and tissue invisible to the human eye. Once being confronted by the jury of flies, the slayer confessed the commission of the crime. In spite of sensing the residues of blood and tissue, insects and maggots are of nice facilitate in deciding the time go on since the death of the deceased.
It is a best-known irrefutable fact that insects and maggots are of a big help to a Forensic Entomologists in deciding myriad factors associated with the death of a private and therefore will offer several links that might ease the complete method of criminal investigation, thereby providing a final conclusion to the case. A number of the essential applications of Forensic Entomology are- determination of your time since death or Post-mortem Interval (PMI) is of huge importance during a crime investigation, as this could offer a robust and far more conclusive result in the complete case. An intensive study of the maggots and therefore the varied stages of its life cycle will terribly clearly offer ends up in a Forensic Entomologist in assessing rather more approximate PMI.
Generally, blood and varied alternative tissues bear a laboratory analysis to see the presence of poisons and its levels within the body. However in few cases wherever body remains undiscovered for an extended duration, then maggots are collected and brought to the laboratory for entomo-toxicological studies as a result of the advanced stage of decomposition within the body where assortment and preservation of body viscera becomes an impossible task. This entomo-toxicological studies of the maggots facilitate in the assessment of poison levels within the body.
Insects’ species are continuously restricted to a limited region or surroundings. The body gets settled shortly once the onset of decomposition. Just in case if the body gets stirred by some external force, then it gets re-colonized once more relying upon the region and therefore the individual environmental issue. But, this secondary colonisation may dissent from the initial colonisation, thereby providing a clue that the body was resettled in a while.
This course outline would inculcate within the students an ability to view every miniscule factors present at the spot, where crime was conducted. In addition, they would also be able to analyse the sequence in which the insects colonize a corpse, and its evidentiary value in the court room.
Module-1 Introduction to forensic entomology- This course outline will introduced you to the introduction to career and scope of forensic entomology, structure of the recent evolution of this area of entomology, explicit and obvious nature of the death, murder, rape and introduction to the use of a taxonomic keys.
Module-2 Techniques of sampling and preservation- Collection, kill, preparations, fixing, preservations and curate the various different kinds of arthropods will be discussed in this module. Methods for gathering evidence in cases of death and multiple evidence data collection will be mentioned.
Module-3 Entomology in civil vs. criminal law- Module will focus on the compare and contrast on these two different methods of action in court law, their potential outcomes and entomology is used as evidence or as the basis for court case.
Module-4 Insect structures and function- Introduction to the simple insect’s body, structure of the cuticles, anatomy and physiology of the insects and the role of insects will be discussed in this module- insect structure and function.
Module-5 Insect’s life history and diversity- Review and survey of insect life history, life-cycles, metamorphosis and a survey of the most important forensic significant groups would be structured in this course module.
Module-6 Insect development and temperature- Module will familiarize you to the temperature mediated insects growth and the principal variables that would affect the estimation of a post-mortem interval or establishment of an arthropod plague.
Module-7 Human decomposition- Human decomposition module will explore you the review of the numerous structures for classifying phases of decomposition in humans and animals remain and understanding of how this may possibly differ geographically and seasonally manner. Simulation and study of human decomposition procedures using several dead animal replicas, mainly pigs, including previous case studies.
Module-8 Role of entomology in human death- Module will familiarize you to the uses of Entomology in investigation of the reasons of human death, duration of the post-mortem interval, PMI results and manifold case studies exemplifying each of these.
Module-9 Beetles decomposing arthropods- Beetles decomposing arthropods comprising the diversity and biology of insects further than flies found in decomposing animal and human remains.
Module-10 Files decomposing arthropods- Decomposing arthropods, flies, will acquaint you to the diversity and biology of flies other than Calyptrate muscoids found in decomposing human and animal rests.
Module-11 Blowfiles decomposing arthropods- The assortment and biology of the blowflies found in decomposing human and animal remains will be discussed in this course module.
Module-12 Flesh and house files- decomposing arthropods- Diversity and biology of houseflies and flesh flies found in decomposing human and animal remains would be familiarize you in this module structure.
Module-13 Water, drugs, toxins and insect decomposition- The arthropods and decomposition in the effects of recreational chemicals, aquatic environments, various poisons and insecticides on population biology and development of insects define in this course module.
Module-14 Forensic medical entomology- Module will focus on the forensic entomology in medical issues and problems caused by insects including spider bite and various envenomizations.
Module-15 Arthropod borne disease litigation- Course would be familiarize you to the forensic entomology in public health, public health policy and arthropod borne disease litigation etc.
Module-16 Arthropod infestation proceedings- In Forensic Entomology course module, students will acquaint you to the delusory parasitosis, mite and other infestations.
Module-17 Role of entomology in archaeology- Insect fragments and infestations in archaeological rests and their consequences in ancient life styles and in human commensal insect distribution will be deliberated in this module structure.
Module-18 Scientific evidence in law- Module focused on the debate of what constitutes fact, the truth, evidence and proof in law, together with an outline to the 1975 federal rules of evidence. Assessment of how scientific evidence has been and is noticed and used in the courtroom. Numerous foremost case studies resulting in major changes in how law observe scientific evidence will be revised, including Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals etc.
The analysis method varies relying upon the course you register for, likewise: if you're registered for Certification, you'll be assigned an assignment throughout the mid-session of the course, that you're deemed to complete at intervals the month. Similar method is followed in six-monthly Diploma. However in yearly PG Diploma, when the completion of the assignment throughout the mid-sessions; a Project-work is assigned throughout the last quarter, that you've got to complete in an exceedingly a months’ time.
The mode of examination are on-line for the scholars listed in any of the advance courses. When the completion of the individual course period, a username and password would be generated for all the enrolled students. The username and the password would be provided to each student through mail before the date assigned for the examination to be conducted, and consequently they might be requested by the involved authorities to see their mails, so they may use the required details in order to prepare for their exams on our on-line examination portal on the allotted date and time.
Note: Every student will be provided with a username and password a month before the conducting of the exams for the demo-exams, in order to familiarize them with each detail involved with the net examination pattern.
The complete correction and analysis takes almost half a month. Once the analysis method is finally done, the mark sheets and certificates square measure announce on to the communication address of each student, however solely after confirming their communication addresses as mentioned on the submitted application forms. Therefore, the scholars are requested to mention their correct and complete address on their forms, so as to avoid any mistake and distress.
Advance Courses are specially designed keeping in mind, the needs of the advance learners, keen in extending the panorama and limits of their meticulous knowledge. Project is one of the most essential prospects of our advance courses, as this project will help the examiner evaluate the dimensions of the knowledge that the learner has acquired during the period of the specific course.
As a Project work, just before the completion of the course, the learner would be assigned with a topic through mail, which he/she needs to complete within a month’s period and send the soft copy of the completed task through the mail itself. Certain rules are mandatory in making of the Project, and the learner is expected to follow the rules, as the violation of any of the below-listed rules may result in rejection of the submitted Project work, and in that case, the learner will have to re-submit the Project again within the stipulated time-period. The rules to be kept in mind while making the Project are:
1. The learner should mention all the details as name, roll number, address along with the ‘submitted by’ heading. In the ‘submitted to’ section, the learner should mention the name of the Organization.
2. The standard font size should be 12, and the font style should be Times New Roman.
3. The standard spacing should be 1.5, along with a justified text in between the margins.
4. Learner should make sure that no plagiarism should be present in the submitted Project. He/she is free to consult various sources, but the language should be their own.
5. The work should be pleasing so that the evaluator is able to appreciate the hard work of the concerned student by the submitted Project itself.
Note: Same criteria is followed for the evaluation of Assignments as well.
Forensic Entomology is an emerging sub-disciplines of Forensic Science, with an opportunity for the aspiring candidates to have a promising career in the present world of competency. This course is especially designed keeping in minds the essentials and requirements of the students as well as the working professionals of the related field. Learners keen to learn and explore their knowledge in this field have vast options open before them to uplift and groom their career in the respective field.
With an immense theoretical and practical knowledge of the subject, an interested candidate can work on to the innumerable concerns associated with the utility of Forensic Entomology by the estimation of post-mortem interval or time since death, by closely observing and ascertaining the life-cycle of the insects/maggots known to colonize a corpse. Other than the related issue, there are several fields in Entomology to inspect and investigate in order to aid in criminal investigation procedures.
The prime requisite of the candidate to lift one’s career in this subject is the possession of immense skill with vast knowledge of the subject on a theoretical as well as practical basis.
1. What is the purpose of designing Advance courses?
The primary focus of the Advance courses is to target the working professionals. Therefore, the main objective of designing these courses are to provide the working candidates an opportunity to augment their skills and knowledge of the subject, with the advancing technology and science, at their own convenience without any time-limit bounds. These courses provide the candidates a chance to improve and add more to their skills, without even hindering and leaving their comfort zones.
2. Which mode of learning is best-suited for Advance courses?
We provide Advance courses in distance learning as well as online mode. Thus, it totally depends on the candidate to choose any mode according to their convenience and comfort. The only difference is that- in online mode, all the study materials, notes etc. will be provided online, thus the candidate is required to have an access to internet; whereas in distance learning, we send the related books, notes and study materials at the postal address of the respective candidate, which he can go through anywhere and anytime on the basis of his ease.
3. How do I enrol for an Advance course?
In order to enrol for any of the Advance courses, the candidate should send through post or mail the scanned copy of the duly filled and signed application form along with two passport sized photographs and the photocopied documents of the certificates and mark-sheets. In order to download the application form, please check the following link: http://sifs.in/application-form.pdf and to apply online, click on to: http://sifs.in/apply-online.php.
After the submission of the form, the student is required to submit the fee. In order to check and know more about the payment methods, please click on to: http://sifsindia.com/payment/
4. What is Forensic Entomology?
Forensic Entomology is that distinctive branch of Forensic Science that aids in legal and criminal processing of a case, by a thorough analysis of the maggots that colonize a corpse after the death. This science helps in estimating a number of factors, such as, estimation of post-mortem interval, detection of entomo-toxicological issues, the re-location of the corpse etc. by studying the maggots, their life-span, their colonization pattern etc.
5. What is the course content of FSP AC 102?
In the course FSP AC 102, the learners will be acquainted with basics, requirements and the techniques employed in the science to prove the suspect guilty before the court of law, in order to ensure an actual verdict in favour of the victim. This course would design the students in a way, that they will be able to present themselves as an Expert Witness before the court, equipped with ample skills and knowledge of the subject.
For more details, click on to http://www.sifs.in/advance-course-forensic-entomology.php
6. What is the course duration of Certificate, Diploma and PG Diploma courses?
All online and distance courses are divided into three certifications i.e. Certificate course for three months, Diploma course for six months and PG Diploma for one year.
7. What qualification is required to be eligible for an Advance course?
If you are looking for Certificate and Diploma courses, you must have completed your 10+2 or appearing in any discipline from Recognized Board/ School and for PG Diploma course graduation will be required. This course is aptly fit for the working professionals, as it may help in enhancing their subject related knowledge.
8. Where can I register for an Advance course?
We provide online application form for all online or distance students. To download application, form click on- http://www.sifs.in/application-form.pdf
9. When will I receive my study materials, books etc.?
After the completion of your admission process and payment of fee, the students enrolled for online courses will receive a username and password to access e-library within 7-10 working days through mail on their mail id which is mentioned on the application form; whereas distance education students will receive hardcopy of related course materials on the mentioned address by courier or post within 15 working days.
10. What about exams and course credits?
In the last month of your course, we will conduct your online exam. All details regarding your exam will be sent to you on the mail id provided by you and the course credits differs according to course code and divided into project work and examination.
For more info please click on- www.sifs.in
11. How do I get my certificate/mark-sheet, when I have completed my exams?
You will receive your mark-sheet and certificate within a month on your mentioned address by courier or post.
12. What is the scope and career of Forensic Entomology?
Forensic Entomology offers a wide range of opportunity to the students aspiring to make their careers as Forensic Scientists and Investigators. With a sense of keen observation and the ability of seeing the unseen are a few traits that would promise the aspiring students to make a colourful career in the wonderful arena of Forensic. You can nurture and enhance your career by this course, as it may provide you with numerous opportunities from laboratories and classrooms to court-rooms.
13. Am I required to pay any extra fee for examination, study materials etc.?
No. Your course fee includes Study materials, Books, Notes, I-Card, Examination Fee. You are not required to pay any extra amount, but in some cases- additional taxes / fees may apply. If you are living out of India and interested in printed notes and books, then you have to pay shipping/postal charges extra.
14. How can I pay my course fee by credit card in USD?
Indian Students may use Universal Currency Converter from http://www.xe.com/ucc/ to pay fee in other currencies, or International students visit this link- http://www.sifs.in/onlinefee.php to check out the fee structure. You can pay your course fee from here- http://www.sifs.org.in/payment (Students enrolled for courses having course duration more than 6 months can pay their Course Fee in maximum two instalments, but Rs. 2000 will be charged extra.)
15. I am interested in a career in this field. Where do I start?
In order to initiate a career into this field, you should have a zeal and urge to unveil the veiled. A certificate, diploma and PG diploma course would help you groom your knowledge theoretically as well as practically, thereby ensuring a safe and secure career.
16. Where will I work?
You may avail opportunities as a Forensic Investigator in Central as well as various State Government Labs. You can also practice as an Entomologist and present yourself in any Indian Court of Law as an Expert Witness under Section 45 of Indian Evidence Act. In addition, you can also work as a trainer or a faculty in any of the colleges providing this course.
17. Can a working professional opt for the course FSP AC 102?
Yes, the course FSP AC 102 is very aptly designed for working professionals, as they may get an access to the subject matter anywhere, anytime according to their own ease and comfort.
18. How can this course be beneficial for a working professional?
Yes, this course will provide an add-on advantage to a working professional. Therefore, this course can prove to be very worthy for working personnel as well.
19. Will I get placed after completing this course?
After the completion of this course, an aspirant may avail opportunities in Research Institutes and various educational institutes and departments all around the Nation.
20. Which other courses can I opt for, other than Forensic Entomology?
Other than Forensic Entomology, we also provide a list of other Forensic-related courses. For detailed info, please check the below-mentioned details-
For distance/online courses: http://sifs.in/online-forensic-science-courses.php for classroom courses: http://www.sifs.in/classroom-forensic-courses.php
Buck Ruxton Case
One of the first cases in which Forensic Entomology was successfully utilised in the UK was that of murderer Buck Ruxton in 1935.
In September 1935 in Dumfriesshire, Scotland, a woman was peering over a bridge above a stream when she made a gruesome discovery. A heap of decaying human remains was found in a small ravine below. Examination of the remains revealed the identities of two victims: the wife and maid of Dr Buck Ruxton - Isabella Kerr and Mary Rogerson. Ruxton, whose full name was Buktyar Rustomji Ratanji Hakim, was a popular and respected GP working in Lancaster at the time, where he lived with his common-law wife Isabella and their three children.
During the investigation various maggot specimens were collected from the remains and sent to a laboratory at the University of Edinburgh. It was there that specialist Dr. Mearns identified the specimens as Calliphora vicina, more commonly known as blowflies. By examining the maggots, it was established that they were somewhere between 12 and 14 days old, thus giving the minimum time for which the remains had been left near the stream.
Suspicion quickly fell on Ruxton for various reasons. The two bodies had been dismembered with great skill, suggesting the suspect was knowledgeable in human anatomy. Furthermore, Ruxton had obtained a cut to his hand around the time of the murder and a cleaning woman had reported revolting odours and blood stains in Ruxton’s house. Finally, parts of the victims’ bodies were wrapped up in newspapers, some of which were special editions from the Sunday Graphic, sold only in Morecambe and Lancaster.
Based on the statements of neighbours, it is believed that Ruxton murdered his popular, outgoing wife, whom he suspected was having an affair, in a fit of rage and, after being disturbed by their housemaid, murdered her too. He then dismembered the bodies in order to hide their identities before dumping them.
On 5th November 1935, Ruxton was charged with murder and later hanged in May the following year, despite a petition for Ruxton’s mercy receiving over 10,000 signatures.
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