According to Bartol & Bartol (1999) – Forensic Psychology refers to the production and application of psychological knowledge to the civil and criminal justice systems. Brain Fingerprinting is a new computer-based technology to identify the perpetrator of a crime accurately and scientifically by measuring brain-wave responses to crime-relevant words or pictures presented on a computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting, invented by Dr. Farewell, is a technique that gives us a simple yes/no answer to the question: “Is a particular information stored in a person’s brain?” The question may sound simple, but the answer to the question can help differentiate between the guilty and the innocent. This is the major application of brain fingerprinting. It can be used to detect lies and find the guilty. Brain fingerprinting can be viewed as a modern, and more accurate, lie detection test. To understand how it works, we must understand the basic difference between the guilty and the innocent. The guilty, since he has committed the crime, has the details of the crime in his memory. However, the innocent does not have the details in his memory. Brain fingerprinting is a test of whether the details are present in the memory or not. If they are, then the person is guilty, otherwise innocent.
Now, how does brain fingerprinting check for these details in a person’s memory? Brain fingerprinting does this by showing certain images of objects (possible murder weapons, etc.) and other stimulus. It then records the response of the person’s brain on seeing these objects. EEG sensors are used to record these responses. Further, a specific waveform called the P300 gets activated (as measured in the response) only if the person is guilty; otherwise it does not. P300 is the specific response of a brain that recognizes the object/image shown, and hence, has the object/image in his memory. Matching evidence at the crime scene with evidence in the brain
When a crime is committed, a record is stored in the brain of the perpetrator. Brain Fingerprinting provides a means to objectively and scientifically connect evidence from the crime scene with evidence stored in the brain. (This is similar to the process of connecting DNA samples from the perpetrator with biological evidence found at the scene of the crime; only the evidence evaluated by Brain Fingerprinting is evidence stored in the brain.) Brain Fingerprinting measures electrical brain activity in response to crime-relevant words or pictures presented on a computer screen, and reveals a brain MERMER (memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response) when, and only when, the evidence stored in the brain matches the evidence from the crime scene. Thus, the guilty can be identified and the innocent can be cleared in an accurate, scientific, objective, non-invasive, non-stressful, and non-testimonial manner.