DNA Fingerprinting, also termed as DNA Profiling, Genotyping, DNA Typing or Genetic Fingerprinting is one of the most recent advancements in Forensic Science. This technique was discovered by Sir. Alec Jeffreys in 1984. While going through this network, he noticed that certain sequences of highly variable DNA (known as minisatellites), do not contribute to the functions of genes, and are repeated within genes. Jeffreys recognized that each individual has a unique pattern of minisatellites (the only exceptions being multiple individuals from a single zygote, such as identical twins). For the extraction of DNA, a sample of cells such as skin, hair, blood, saliva etc. is required.
According to this technique, the DNA is extracted from the cells of skin, hair, blood, saliva etc., and then it is purified. Jeffrey’s original approach was based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). In the RFLP technology, the DNA was cut at specific points along the strand with proteins known as restriction enzymes. The enzymes produced fragments of varying lengths that were sorted by placing them on a gel and then subjecting the gel to an electric current (electrophoresis): the shorter the fragment, the more quickly it moved toward the positive pole (anode). The sorted double-stranded DNA fragments were then subjected to a blotting technique in which they were split into single strands and transferred to a nylon sheet. The fragments underwent autoradiography in which they were exposed to DNA probes—pieces of synthetic DNA that were made radioactive and that bound to the minisatellites. A piece of X-ray film was then exposed to the fragments, and a dark mark was produced at any point where a radioactive probe had become attached. The resultant pattern of marks could then be analyzed. Other than RFLP, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Short Tandem Repeats (STR) and Variable Number Tandem Repeats are also used for the analysis procedure.
DNA Fingerprinting technique is used in cases of sexual assaults, missing persons, paternity-maternity issues and certain other criminal cases. This course structure would make the students aware of the complex techniques and analytical methods employed by the scientists in DNA Profiling, and the revolution that the discovery of DNA Fingerprinting brought into the criminal investigation system.
Module-1 DNA fingerprinting
DNA fingerprinting is a test to recognize the genetic material known as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in an individual's cells. It is known as "Fingerprint" because it is very improbable that any two persons would have accurately similar DNA information. In the other same way that it is very questionable that any two persons would have exactly the same fingerprint. This is used to conclude whether a family relationship happens between two persons, to identify organisms producing an ailment, and to resolve crime. Module would be introducing you to the DNA profiling structure & analysis, history of DNA fingerprinting, human genetics – heredity, alleles, mutations and population genetic, molecular biology of DNA, variations, polymorphism DNA system, RFLP analysis, PCR amplifications, sequence polymorphism, analysis of SNP, y-STR and mitochondrial DNA.
Module-2 Evaluation of result of DNA profiling
This procedure is used as one worth of identification once an assailant has left some kind of biological fluid or blood sample at the crime scene and when no visual credentials is possible. It will define you isolation from blood, purification and quantifications, preparation of lectins and testing their activities against body fluids & tissues, frequency calculations, interpretation, allele frequency determination, Match probability- database and quality control and certification and accreditation.
Module-3 Forensic significance of DNA profiling
DNA profiling has concerned a good contract of public courtesy. The practical applications of DNA technologies to identify the genetic material has an important influence on Forensic Biology, because it allows much stronger decisions of uniqueness or differences to be made. Module will introduce you to the application in disputed paternity cases and child swapping, missing person’s identity- immigration, veterinary, wild life and agriculture cases, determination of origin of species of human and animal from- bones, hair, flesh, nails, skin, teeth body tissue, fluids/stains vs. blood, menstrual blood, semen, saliva, sweat, tear, pus, vomit etc. Through immuno-diffusion and immuno-electrophoresis and cross reactivity among closely related species can be determined.
Module-4 Legal perspective in DNA evidences
This module is framed to make the students understand what actually DNA fingerprinting is all about. This module would help students gather information and use of application of DNA techniques in the legal proceedings. Under this module, legal standard for admissibility of DNA profiling- procedural & ethical concerns and status of development of DNA profiling in India & abroad, new & future technologies- DNA chips, SNPS, DNA cloning and limitations of DNA profiling.
Module-5 Serology and genetic markers
Under this module, students would be taught about the introduction to serology and genetic markers, structure and functions- carbohydrates, fats, proteins, serum proteins and cellular proteins. Basic concepts of genetic- Mendelian genetics, genotypes, phenotypes, mutation, multiple alleles, genetic variants and biochemical genetics, gene structure its frequency determination, gene mapping and gene expression and genetic markers and their forensic significance will be taught.
Module-6 Serogenetic markers
It basically defines the identification of donor with the help of blood sample, of the several blood markers, ABO is more usually done for blood in laboratories and very less generally done for urine, saliva, and semen. Module would introduce you to the blood groups systems, history of blood groups, biochemistry and genetics- ABO, Rh, MN and other systems. Introducing methods of ABO blood grouping (absorption-inhibition, mixed agglutination and absorption) from blood stains and other body fluids/stains viz. menstrual blood, semen, saliva, sweat, tear, pus, vomit, hair, bone, nail etc. Then blood group specific ABH substances, determination of secretor/ non secretor status, Lewis antigen, polymorphic enzymes typing – PGM, GLO – I, ESD, EAP, AK, ADA etc., and their forensic significance, HLA typing, Role of Serogenetic markers in individualization and paternity disputes etc.
The evaluation process varies depending upon the course you enroll for, likewise: if you are enrolled for Certification, you will be allotted an assignment during the mid-session of the course, which you are deemed to complete within the month. Similar process is followed in Diploma. But in PG Diploma, after the completion of the assignment during the mid-sessions; a Project-work is assigned during the last quarter, which you have to complete in a month’s time.
The mode of examination will be online for the students enrolled either in online courses or in distance course. After the completion of the respective course duration, a username and password would be generated for all the enlisted students. The username and the password would be mailed to every student prior to the date allotted for the examination to be held, and accordingly they would be requested by the concerned authorities to check their mails, so that they could use the specified details in order to give their exams on our online examination portal on the allocated date and time.
Note: Every student will be given a username and password a month before the conducting of the exams for the demo-exams, so that they get to know every detail concerned with the online examination pattern.
The complete correction and evaluation takes about two weeks. After the evaluation process is finally done, the mark sheets and certificates are posted on to the postal address of every student, but only after verifying their postal addresses as mentioned on the submitted application forms. Therefore, the students are always requested to mention their correct and complete address on their application form, in order to avoid further confusion and disappointment.
This collaborative training session is designed for online and distance students. The training would acquaint the students with practicals of DNA Fingerprinting, work on real cases and the digital techniques required to be an eminent and well-experienced forensic investigator.
Module structure: DNA fingerprinting has become a very demanding and advanced technology in the recent days. A person equipped with witty common sense to find out something that seems to be hidden, is aptly fit for undergoing this course. A one month training programme has been designed to acquaint the students with basics of this course code.
Module-1: DNA fingerprinting- In the module structure, students would be familiarized with the DNA identification structure & analysis, history of DNA process, human biological science – heredity, alleles, mutations and population genetic, biological science of DNA, variations, polymorphism DNA system, RFLP analysis, PCR amplifications, sequence polymorphism, analysis of SNP, Y-STR and mitochondrial DNA.
Module-2: DNA profiling evaluation: Training module can outline you on isolation from blood, purification and quantifications, preparation of lectins and testing their activities against body fluids & tissues, frequency calculations, interpretation, factor frequency determination, Match probability- information and internal control and certification and enfranchisement. It'll conjointly acquaint you to the report writing supported deoxyribonucleic acid identification and its analysis.
Module-3: Forensic significance of DNA profiling- The practical applications of polymer technologies to spot the genetic material has a crucial influence on Forensic Biology, as a result it permits abundant stronger choices of individuality or variations to be created. Module can introduce you to the appliance in controversial paternity cases with real case examples and kid swapping, missing person’s identity- immigration, veterinary & wild life and agriculture cases, determination of origin of species of human and animal from.
You will practice on- Bones, hair, flesh, nails, skin, teeth body tissue, fluids/stains vs. blood, menorrhea, semen, saliva, sweat, tear, pus, vomit etc. Through immuno- diffusion and immune-electrophoresis, activity and cross reactivity among closely connected species.
Module-4: Legal perspective in DNA evidences- This training module would help students gather information and use of application of DNA techniques in the legal proceedings. Under this module, legal standard for admissibility of DNA profiling, legal standard for admissibility of DNA profiling- procedural & ethical concerns and status of development of DNA profiling in India & abroad, new & future technologies- DNA chips, SNPS, DNA cloning and limitations of DNA profiling.
Module-5: Serology and genetic markers- Under this module, students would be taught about the introduction to serology and genetic markers in a practical manner. Structure and functions- carbohydrates, fats, proteins, serum proteins and cellular proteins. Basic concepts of genetic- Mendelian genetics, genotypes, phenotypes, mutation, multiple alleles, genetic variants and biochemical genetics, gene structure its frequency determination, gene mapping and gene expression and genetic markers and their forensic significance.
Serogenetic markers module would be practicing on blood groups systems, biochemistry and genetics- ABO, Rh, MN and other systems. Introducing methods of ABO blood grouping from blood stains and other body fluids/stains viz. menstrual blood, semen, saliva, sweat, tear, pus, vomit, hair, bone, nail etc. Then blood group specific ABH substances, determination of secretor/ non secretor status, Lewis antigen, polymorphic enzymes typing, and their forensic significance, HLA typing, Role of Serogenetic markers in individualization and paternity disputes etc.
Module-6: Report writing and case discussion- Importance of reports and need of an investigative report, salient features of a good report, layout of an investigative report, and guidelines for report writing.
DURATION OF TRAINING
The duration scheduled for the training is one month during the summer vacations.
ADVANTAGES OF TRAINING
>> The training session specially focusses to bring together online and distance students to enhance their knowledge.
>> Training will provide you the practical knowledge and opportunities to investigate the legal cases.
>> The training session of the course FSP 401 DNA Fingerprinting course familiarize you to brief knowledge of course in classroom assembly.
>> Online and distance students attend to plenary training session and case studies, and learn more about the DNA Fingerprinting.
>> Upon completing this training session, you should be able to develop your potential in an analytical manner.
FEE FOR TRAINING
The training would be payable for online and distance learning students. But they already being enrolled as students, therefore they can avail an add-on advantage of earning 15% scholarship on their respective course fee.
After the successful completion of one month training, a valedictory function is organized on the last day where students are distributed the certificate and a farewell treat is arranged for the students from the Organization.
Outline towards DNA Fingerprinting career paths
Now a days Forensic Science stands in very broad manner with multiple sub-fields. DNA Fingerprinting is one of the chief sub-disciplines of Forensic Science, which offers a myriad career opportunities to the keen aspirants. After a thorough theoretical and practical sessions provided under this course, the student would be able to gain the capability to understand and analyze the techniques applied in the isolation, extraction and detection of the genetic material. After completing this course, a student has innumerable options for grooming one’s career, some of them are listed below:
>> Student can be appointed as a DNA Fingerprinting Expert in the Central Forensic Science Laboratories.
>> Student can also be appointed as a DNA Fingerprinting Expert in the State Forensic Labs.
>> Student can be appointed as a faculty/ trainer of DNA Fingerprinting Expert in the various institutes offering Forensic Science courses as undergraduate and master’s programme.
>> With immense knowledge of DNA Fingerprinting, one could also be appointed as DNA Fingerprinting Expert in any of the related departments of Central as well as State Governments.
Educational Qualification to set a career in DNA Fingerprinting
First level course of the DNA Fingerprinting is a Certification Programme. In order to opt for this course one must be of Science background. DNA Fingerprinting courses are also available for the Science background graduate level students who are interested to start their career from master level programme in the respective investigating science. For those students, who are opting for their Doctorate degree can choose any of the traits of DNA Fingerprinting, or any other such related topic for their further research and study.
Students and professionals both can do Certification, Diploma Course and P.G. Diploma course offered in Forensic Science to elevate their legal knowledge.
Sectors in DNA Fingerprinting
Job prospects for DNA Fingerprinting are in Government Sectors, as Medical Practitioner, and Forensic labs; Government and Private Laboratories.
Alternate job besides working in a Laboratory is teaching with abundant opportunity to upheld one’s career by imparting education. One can also work in Private firms dealing with DNA related issues.
1. What is DNA Fingerprinting?
In the course DNA Fingerprinting, the students will be acquainted with importance of science and techniques involved in the isolation and detection of DNA in cases pertaining to the identification of the culprit in sexual assault cases, paternity-maternity issues etc.
2. What is the course content of FSP 401?
The course DNA Fingerprinting (FSP 401) includes all the details and basics one should know regarding the significance of DNA Fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Course will introduce you to interactive training session and practicals on the scientific and practical methods involved in a proper analysis of cases relating to the profiling of DNA.
For more details click on- http://www.sifs.in/prospectus/FSP-401-forensic-dna-fingerprinting.pdf
3. What is the course duration of Certificate, Diploma and PG Diploma courses?
All online and distance courses are divided into three certifications i.e. Certificate course for three months, Diploma course for six months and PG Diploma for one year.
4. What qualification is required to be eligible for the above-mentioned courses?
If you are looking for Certificate and Diploma courses, you must have completed your 10+2 or appearing in any discipline from Recognized Board/ School and for PG Diploma course graduation will be required. In the admission process, self-attested mark-sheets and certificates of the previous school/college and transfer certificate along with 2 passport size photographs will be required from the student.
5. Where can I register for distance or online education courses?
We provide online application form for all online or distance students. To download application, form click on- http://www.sifs.in/application-form.pdf
6. When will I receive my study materials, books etc.?
After the completion of your admission process and payment of fee, the students enrolled for online courses will receive a username and password to access e-library within 7-10 working days through mail on their mail id which is mentioned on the application form; whereas distance education students will receive hardcopy of related course materials on the mentioned address by courier or post within 15 working days.
7. What about exams and course credits?
In the last month of your course, we will conduct your online exam. All details regarding your exam will be sent to you on the mail id provided by you and the course credits differs according to course code and divided into assignment, project and exam.
For more detail please click on- www.sifs.in/ims
8. How do I get my certificate/mark-sheet, when I have completed my exams?
You will receive your mark-sheet and certificate within a month on your mentioned address by courier or post.
9. What is the difference between online and distance education? Which is the best mode of education?
Both modes of education are good. The only difference between online and distance education is distance education students will get hardcopy material related to their course code, and so the distance learning students will pay Rs. 1000 more as compared to online education students. An extra amount is charged for distance learning students, as the postal charges are included in the course fee.
10. Where do I find out what courses are being offered distance or online?
We provide all information on the website- www.sifs.in
11. Although my degree is in an unrelated field of study, I have taken quite a few science courses. Am I eligible to apply?
Yes. You are eligible for this DNA Fingerprinting (FSP 401), if you have completed or if you are pursuing your 10+2 or graduation in any discipline from a Recognized Board/ School/ College.
12. What is the scope and career of forensic education and related courses?
Forensic Science offers a wide range of opportunity to the students aspiring to make their careers as Forensic Scientists and Investigators. With a sense of keen observation and the ability of seeing the unseen are a few traits that would promise the aspiring students to make a colorful career in the wonderful arena of Forensic.
13. Should I pay any extra fee for examination, study materials etc.?
No. Your course fee includes Study materials, Books, Notes, I-Card, Examination Fee. You are not required to pay any extra amount, but in some cases- additional taxes / fees may apply. If you are living out of India and interested in printed notes and books, then you have to pay shipping/postal charges extra. Summer training and practical sessions will be payable for online and distance students with 15% scholarship.
14. What will I get after joining distance course?
You will get User-id and password to access e-library within 7-10 working days. Study materials, notes and books related to your course and id-card will be sent on the address mentioned by you, either by courier or post within 15 working days.
15. How can I pay my course fee by credit card in USD?
Indian Students may use Universal Currency Converter from http://www.xe.com/ucc/ to pay fee in other currencies, or International students visit this link- http://www.sifs.in/onlinefee.php to check out the fee structure. You can pay your course fee from here- http://www.sifs.org.in/payment (Students enrolled for courses having course duration more than 6 months can pay their Course Fee in maximum two instalments, but Rs. 2000 will be charged extra.)
16. Why is training important?
Training is a vital part of online and distance students. It is intended to provide students with the opportunity to place theories into practicals. It is also very helpful to develop their skills that support professional life by preparing and encouraging them to apply their abilities and knowledge acquired through study in a work later on. So, even before the students completed their course they are trained to be job-ready, therefore increasing the student’s employment prospects.
17. What is the best route to prepare for a career as a forensic scientist?
SIFS INDIA provides professional course DNA Fingerprinting (FSP 401) to acquire knowledge from the basics. The course interest attribute to up showing television shows focused on law enforcement and forensics. Subject offers the opportunity to grow your career in many sub disciples.
18. I am interested in a career in this field. Where do I start?
In order to initiate a career into this field, you should have a zeal and urge to unveil the veiled. A certificate, diploma and PG diploma course would help you groom your knowledge theoretically as well as practically, thereby ensuring a safe and secure career.
19. Where will I work?
You may avail opportunities as a DNA Fingerprint in the central as well as state laboratories. You can also practice as a DNA analyst in various private firms offering their services in the respective field.
20. What are the other specialized forensic science careers can be found outside the crime laboratory?
Other than working in the Crime Laboratory, you can also be appointed as a Crime Scene Investigator in Police Stations or you can also be appointed as an Investigator for the Mobile Forensic Laboratory.
Lynda Mann Murder Case
A fifteen year old school girl, Lynda Mann was abducted in Narbourough, England. The next day, her body was discovered raped and murdered. Three years later, another young woman met the same fate near Lynda’s resting place. Richard Buckland was arrested and confessed to the second murder only. An untested technique was applied; ‘genetic fingerprinting’ through DNA analysis. Surprisingly, there was no match in either murder, so the test was repeated. Ultimately, Buckland was proven innocent. As to why he confessed, he claimed he had been pressured by police.
5,500 men from the local area were then tested. Colin Pitchfork persuaded a friend to test in his place, but when he bragged about fooling the investigators, he was overheard and reported. His genetic profile matched the semen samples from both girls, and in 1987 he became the first murderer convicted by DNA.
All these courses are Online / Distance mode. Each student can access their course module by login our online study portal i.e.
Apart from above course details, there are some additional details of this course. More details can be get by clicking here such as-
1. Eligibility for the Admission
2. Admission Procedure
3. Examination Pattern
4. Grading System in Examination
5. Course Fee and Concession
6. Types of Certificates
7. Study Materials
For further Course details Click Here-->>
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