BY Jacob V | June 21, 2023
Mass graves are archaeological aspects with humanitarian and forensic import. Their formation and subsequent modification by natural and human agents reflect complex site histories and site origination processes that create a diversity of mass graves that must be captured with sufficient technology. Once a mass grave has been identified, investigating it yields insight into past events and can inform future decisions regarding safety measures at similar sites. The remains found inside a mass grave reveal information about past events that shocked humanity. However, identifying a mass grave is an important step toward preserving history- it reminds us of how deadly humanity can be toward itself. It is a common occurrence in war zones and after massacres. Finding remains in a mass grave aid in determining how many people have died and where they were from. Discovering the causes of mass graves can help prevent similar tragedies in the future.
In this essay, I will be discussing the identification of mass graves. A mass grave is a large number of dead bodies buried in one location. Typically, mass graves are found after a major war or catastrophe. In such situations, people have no choice but to hide the corpses from the public eye. This occurs because the survivors want to avoid additional deaths and chaos during their time of grief. Situations like these make finding mass graves difficult due to the amount of disturbance they cause. Fortunately, there are ways to identify them when searching for remains It's also important to know what information can be found from Mass Graves investigation reports on how investigations inform our knowledge of past events and practices, identify finds, provide evidence for subsequent trials, and generate greater public understanding of history, culture, heritage language, and traditions.
Mass graves are identified by using different methods such as aerial photography, ground surveys, using satellite images, excavation method, DNA analysis method, and isotope analysis method.
1. Arial Photography
Aerial photography became one of the most important tools for warfare exploration. The main advantage is that it can be done at any time without disturbing the site and the disadvantage is that it requires both financial and technical resources which may not be available in all cases.
2. Ground Survey
Ground surveys are another common method used for identifying mass grave sites. This method mainly uses geophysical techniques like magnetometry and ground penetrating radar which help in identifying mass graves that are disturbed or buried under the soil.
3. Satellite Images
Satellite imagery can be the main technique used in the investigation of graves, but it can be difficult to detect when such imagery suitable and how much value it can add to an investigation. It became a failure to find the location of a grave in the absence of corroborating evidence
LIDAR was a tool demonstrating more useful in archaeology section which applied to forensics. It is able to creep into leaf cover to perfectly map the shape of terrain beneath. It is an active remote sensing system that can utilize to measure vegetation height across wide areas. It straight measures the height and density of vegetation on ground.
4. Excavation Method
Excavation method involves digging up the grave and examining the contents to identify the victims. This is the most direct way to identify mass graves but can be difficult and time-consuming due to the nature of the soil and the grave site. Another method is the DNA analysis method. In this method, a small sample of the remains is collected and tested for genetic markers of a particular population group. This method is most accurate and effective for identifying the dead but requires a large sample of the remains and therefore is not feasible for every mass grave. In general, the excavation method is the most effective method for identifying mass graves because it allows the remains to be examined closely for physical clues to identification.
5. Isotope Analysis Method
Isotope analysis method involves collecting samples of soil from the mass grave and analysing them for radioactive isotopes to determine how long they have been there. It is useful for finding recently used mass graves as radioactive isotopes decay over time and cannot be detected for a number of years. It was the most efficient and effective because it combines the benefits of both methods and produces the most reliable results. For each of these methods, there are some potential pitfalls that need to be avoided. For example, it is not possible to completely eliminate the possibility of false results with any of these methods because of the potential contamination of the soil with human DNA. Still, this system can be precious and time-consuming.
In order to ensure the accuracy of the identification process, it is recommended that all mass grave investigations include an independent team of forensic anthropologists, anthropologists, and geneticists who are experienced in identifying the remains of mass graves. The experts involved in the identification process should also be carefully trained to identify the different physical characteristics of the population group that was involved in the incident. It is also recommended that the human remains be preserved in a state of unforgettable comfort in a climate-controlled setting for the duration of the investigation process in order to ensure that they are not subject to decomposition or damage during the process. The remains of the victims should also be protected from attacks by small animals such as rats and squirrels in order to avoid the spread of any infectious diseases. It is also recommended that any clothing or other personal items be removed from the remains before they are identified by the experts. This will prevent the spread of any diseases or contamination of the remains with other potentially harmful materials such as metal or plastic. Finally, it is important to ensure that the authorities take appropriate steps to protect the remains of the victims from exposure to the elements. This could include the burial of the remains in an appropriately secured location until the identification process is completed.
1. Archaeological Case Study
❖ On November 2013, some building work was underway in picturesque city of Durham.
❖ It was carried out under the control of Archaeologists which was turned to be a mass grave.
❖ Skeletal remains were carefully excavated. Body have been placed on top of one another.
❖ This grave did not constitute the careful arrangement of bodies.
❖ Analysed in lab and it was determined that it belongs to minimum number of 17 people.
❖ There are many more in the grave but it emit be found out because of other building work.
❖ Mode of burial was unusual.
❖ Skeleton were mostly teenagers and young adults and all were male.
❖ Skeleton also showed the sign adversity in childhood with evidence of poor nutrition and dental health.
❖ Radiocarbon dating indicate that burials dated approximately to English civil war in AD 1650.
❖ Stable isotope analysis evidence suggested that at least some individuals were not from UK.
❖ Scientific evidence integrated with historical research and revealed those individuals were soldiers in prisoners of war .
2. Annigiri Case
❖ On August 29, 2010, a worker found a human skull in Annigeri of Navalgund taluk near Hubli, while excavating a small canal.
❖ Around 60-75 human skeletons were retrieved in the town of Karnataka’s Dharwar district.
❖ Skeletons are buried in a very standardized manner.
❖ 300 more skeletons were found and more than 600 skulls were recovered in the village.
❖ Skulls were send to Institute of Physics for analysing through carbon dating method to know about the period of time since death.
❖ 286 skulls were not damaged.
❖ First report by Institute of Physics used carbon dating method stats that skulls were 638 years old around 1370 AD.
❖ Beta analytics concluded that age of skulls at 181 years correlate to carbon dating result .
In conclusion, it is essential that the identification process for the remains of the victims is carried out in a dignified manner at all times in order to prevent any unnecessary controversy around the case and to protect the privacy of the victims and their families. It is also important to remember that the process of identifying the remains of the victims is never completely complete as there may be questions that remain unanswered or unknown information that may have been overlooked during the process. As such, it is important that the families involved remain vigilant and open to further investigation and discussion about the circumstances surrounding the death of their loved ones in order to help to clarify any lingering doubts and questions that may be causing distress for the families.
Although the process of identifying the remains of the victims is often a painful and challenging experience for the families involved, it is important to remember that it is the right thing to do and should be carried out with respect and dignity at all times. In some cases, the authorities may also want to conduct a third-party identification process in order to confirm the identity of the victim more accurately. In these cases, the remains may be sent to a third-party laboratory for DNA testing in order to ensure that they are not the remains of a second victim.
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Note - The figures and images used in this blog are only for educational purposes.