MODULE 1 – BALLISTICS AND FIREARM
Forensic ballistics is the branch of forensic science that deals with weapons. This module will introduce you the history of firearm, branches of ballistics, the introduction to firearms and its parts such as barrel, action, stock, firing pin or striker, breech face, chamber, extractor and ejector, barrel, choked barrel and also include its classifications i.e. on the basis of bore, on the Basis of Loading Characteristics, on the Basis of Action Mechanism, on the Basis of Handling Condition and on the basis of velocity.
MODULE 2 – AMMUINITION
In this module, student will familiarize with the history of ammunition and different type of propellant, projectiles types such as lead pellets and jacketed bullet, primer and wad with their types and also consider the types of cartridge case and hand stamps.
MODULE 3 – MUZZLE LOADING FIREAMS
This module defines the detail description of muzzle loading firearms with the historical background. And also include percussion cap, projectile charge, wad, powder charge and contain the mechanism of muzzle loading firearms.
MODULE 4 – MECHANISM OF FIRING
In this module, student get the detailed description about the mechanism of firing of different types of firearm like shotgun, pistol, rifle, revolver and machine gun. The knowledge of mechanism of firing is important as the forensic aspects.
MODULE 5 – INTERNAL BALLISTICS
This module defines the internal ballistics as a branch of ballistics in which student will be able to learn about the ignition of the propellant, hang fire, pressure space curve, shot start pressure, Velocity and Space Curve that occur in the firearm. This module also includes the factors affecting the muzzle velocity and theory of recoil, Piobett law and Le Due’s formula for the understanding of internal ballistics.
MODULE 6 – EXTERNAL BALLISTICS
This module gives the detailed description of the external ballistics (the motion of projectile in the air). In the external ballistics, scholars will learn how the velocity of the projectile can be determined from the equation derived from motion of projectile. The principle problem of exterior ballistics and misfire which occur spontaneously due to the defect in the firearm.
MODULE 7 – TERMINAL BALLISTICS / FIREARM INJURIES
Firearm injuries as the name signifies will be dealing with various types of injuries and their nature such as wound ballistics – the target site, the velocity, constructional features and range. It also comprising the identification like pink coloration, blackening, tattooing, dirt ring, foreign materials, charring, contusion and wounds. Postmortem report, nature of firearm such as pistol and revolver injuries, rifle injuries, shotgun injuries, muzzle-loading firearm injuries and zip gun injuries. It will covers the postmortem or ante mortem injuries, fatal injuries and extraordinary facts, age of injuries. It also cover the evaluation of firearm injuries.
MODULE 8 – IMPROVISED FIREARMS
Improved firearms or advanced firearm would be explain you to its introduction, history, classification, characteristics of barrel, chamber, action and lock and the firing process with its evaluation.
MODULE 9 – MISCELLANEOUS
This module focusses on various firearm such as freak firearms, toy firearms, penetration power, and range of firearms, comparative calibers, bore diameters and conversion barrels.
MODULE 10 – PROBLEMS AND LOCATION
Problems in identification of firearms module would familiarize you to the Fired ammunition, firearm injuries, medico-legal problem, muzzle- loaders, live ammunition and fraudulent manipulation. Location will comprise the position of victim and culprit and the scene of occurrence.
MODULE 11 – COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION OF FIREARM EVIDENCE
Collection and preservation of firearm evidence would be accustomed to the collection of bullets, firearm, cartridge cases, slugs, clothes, glass fragments and discharge residues. Examination of the injuries, bullets holes and test exhibits.
MODULE 12 – EXAMINATION OF FIREARM EVIDENCE
Examination of Firearm Evidence module comprises the principle of examination, class and individual features of bullets and cartridges, text exhibits which includes ammunition, defective firearms, high velocity, rifles, damaged firearms, recovery and cleaning. In the module scholars will learn about different examination techniques such as stereoscopy, comparison microscopy, comparison camera, stereograph, periphery camera, photographic comparison, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis), AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy) and AES (Atomic Emission Spectroscopy). This module also comprises the restoration of erased serial number of firearm evidence.
MODULE 13 – GUNSHOT RESIDUES
Gunshot residue (GSR) is the burnt and unburnt particles comes out from the firearm. This module provide the detailed information about different powders that is black powder residues, smokeless powder residues, its nature, location, collection (dry, wet method) and evaluation. Whereas evaluation method comprises of Visual Examination, Infra-Red Photography, Soft X-Ray Radiography, Dermal Nitrate Test, Walker’s Test, Harrison and Gilroy’s Test and Price’s Spot Test, Griess Test, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Flame-less Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (F-AAS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF).
MODULE 14 – SPECIAL SITUATION
This module deals with the special situations which can be seen in the cases oriented with forensic ballistic The topics covered under special situations module are damaged cartridge cases, damaged bullets, burnt bullets and cartridge cases, smooth barrel marks, buckshot and pellets and no firearm. These situation sometime become challenging for the investigator while dealing with the cases.
MODULE 15 – EXAMINATION OF RANGE OF FIRE
This module contains the detail regarding the examination of range which is the necessary step in estimating the range of firearm. This module provide the scholars a detail description about how to estimate the range of firearm with the help of muzzle patterns, scorching, blackening, tattooing, powder residues, metal particles, wad distribution, pellet patterns and direction of wound.
MODULE 16 – AUTOMATED FIREARM IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
This module will describe about different systems Automated Firearm Identification System (AFIS) such as National Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) and Integrated Ballistics Information (IBIS). These Automated Firearm Identification System are time consuming technique which help the expert in examining the firearm. Here in this module history, working principles, examination and limitations of Automated Firearm Identification System has been discussed in detail.
MODULE 17 – CRIME SCENE RECONSTRUCTION
Crime scene reconstruction help the investigator in rearrange the event happened at crime scene. This module will explain the learner about the major topics of photographing the crime scene, collection of relevant evidences and their analysis, formation of medico-legal report and theories helpful to solve crime.
MODULE 18 – COURTROOM PRESENTATION OF EVIDENCE
In this module learner will be provided with the information of about expert opinion and evaluation of the case, experimental data, and illustration like cartridge cases, bullets and range. It will also comprise the medical evidence, language of the experts, cross-examination- to discredit the expert, to clarify evidence, to prove inadequate and to elicit additional evidence.